Without specifically intending to, the founders of the Internet had foreordained by the radicalism of their conception that Levin and Case’s great image of the future would have
  the architectural radicalism of the internet; shows that architecture has power, produces space
infraspace | urbit

Like all centralized systems, Jobs’s has its merits: one can easily criticize its principles yet love its products. Computers, it turns out, can indeed benefit in some ways from a centralizing will to perfection, no less than French cuisine, a German automobile, or any number of other elevated aesthetic experiences that depend on strict control of process and the consumer.
  the merits of centralised systems
infraspace | urbit

The power of minority, of particularity, finds its figure or universal consciousness in the proletariat.
  necessity of theorising wrt the global. the revolutionary requires global grappling

We have adumbrated as our basic unit of observation a concept of world-systems that have structural parts and evolving stages. It is within such a frame- work, I am arguing, that we can fruitfully make comparative analyses-of the wholes and of parts of the whole. Conceptions precede and govern measurement
  investment in the materiality of concepts, like marx
key | infraspace | marx

Colonial rule after all had been an inferior mode of relationship of core and periphery, one occasioned by the strenuous late- nineteenth-century conflict among industrial states but one no longer desirable from the point of view of the new hegemonic power.46 But a world capitalist economy does not permit true imperium
  the world-system redefines the relationship between core and periphery from colonial era

From the beginning, American space was not only an extensive, unbounded space but also an intensive space: a space of crossings, a ‘‘melting pot’’ of continuous hybridization.
  on space; it is intensive
interesting | infraspace

production is understood in a very broad sense, ranging from economic production to the production of subjectivity.
  herein the double meaning of the production of space

the rule of Empire operates on all registers of the social order extending down to the depths of the social world.
  i.e. it produces space

It is the depersonalization of exchange within capitalist society that depoliticizes economic power, no matter how close capitalists and politicians may become.
  does p2p contribute to the depoliticization of exchange?
urbit | infraspace

the "second industrial divide," a restructuring of capitalism characterized by decentralized production and changed technologies of flexible specialization, technologies that impose a competitive strategy of permanent innovation
  neoliberalization of p2p
infraspace | urbit

Rightly dismissing any romantic notion that conventional regimes might easily be abandoned (“don’t tell me global bartering is feasible”), Harvey implies that the common, like the socialist state or the communist international before it, requires institutions of its own, beginning with a medium of economic exchange.
  harvey criticises hardt&negri's theorising of the common

Hardt and Negri point out that these seeming externalities actually register “the general social circuits of biopolitical production and reproduction of the city,” which are subject to reappropriation. 11 Another way of saying this is that the city mediates value production through its material infrastructures; among other things, these infrastructures typically support transportation, communication, education, security, health, housing and commerce, and are variously associated with the state, the private sector, or both.
  hardt and negri in support of software's bearing on the materiality of the city
urbit | infraspace

The problem is that although community “in itself” has meaning as part of a broader politics, community “for itself” almost invariably degenerates into regressive exclusions and fragmentations (what some would call negative heterotopias of spatial form).
  there is a need to reunderstand cybernetics and software via this critical understanding of space and place
infraspace | urbit

If we do not pay close attention to how something potentially progressive can so easily turn reactionary, then we lose sight of the grander political possibilities that always attach to mobilizing the power of place as a moment in the search for the geography of freedom.
key | urbit | infraspace

In designating the city as an absolute Cartesian space, we fix its administrative cartographic form and set up principles of internal ordering.
  software also determines the "principles of internal ordering".. also useful is the notion of the 'metabolism of the city' further down this page
urbit | infraspace

Freedom is here understood not as arbitrary play, but as creative dialogue between the inherent qualities of places and human aspirations and actions
  def: freedom. if architecture's aim is to interpret and augment an environment, then software works in the same way; it is nothing but architecture functioning not through the materiality of brick & mortar, but of electronics and code
urbit | infraspace

And yet, they have preserved a deeper dream as well. As they set off for the hills of New Mexico and Tennessee, the communards of the back-to-the- land movement hoped to build not only communities of consciousness, but real, embodied towns. Most failed—not for lack of good intentions, nor even for lack of tools, but for lack of attention to politics.
  this imagination is returning with the idea of the smart city
urbit | infraspace

A new “ethos of openness”
  openness here etymologically marks exploitative economic deregulation
infraspace | urbit

In this sense, for Barlow as for Bateson, “mind was a space”—that is, mind and material world were both systems constituted and maintained by the circulation of energy and thus were mirrors of each other. And in Barlow’s experience, if not in Bateson’s, LSD had served as a gateway to that understanding
  mental operations substitute material ones... which obviously requires a certain privilege of being able to separate the mental from the material
oss | urbit | infraspace

Throughout the 1980s, cyberspace was used primarily to describe virtual reality of the kind these firms were working to develop. But even as tech- nologists worked to build a sort of placeless space, that space quickly became linked to local, Bay area stories of LSD and countercultural trans- formation.

the overarching target of Lefebvre in Vers une architecture de la jouissance was asceticism, which he saw in bourgeois morality, capitalist accumulation, modernist aesthetics, structuralist epistemology, bureaucratic governance, and the political imaginary of the communist Left.
  this could be extended to a critique of p2p technology. it is not asceticism alone that substantiates a critical form against capitalism
lefebvre | infraspace | urbit

While such French author like, recently, Jean-Luc Nancy, opposed mondialisation to globalisation in the sense of Americanization, for Lefebvre globalisation is to be seen as just one, among many, possibilities of mondialisation.
  def: mondialisation in lefebvre
lefebvre | infraspace

As Stewart Brand pointed out, in what would soon become a famous formula- tion, information-based products embodied an economic paradox. “On the one hand,” he said, “information wants to be expensive, because it’s so valu- able. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other.”
  information wants to be expensive; oh wait, free
oss | infraspace

The idea that the material world could be thought of as an information system and modeled on computers emerged not with the Internet, but much earlier, in and around the government-sponsored research laboratories of World War II, and particularly around the Radiation Laboratory at MIT.
  this worldview emerged in government-sponsored research labs of WWII
key | infraspace

At the same time, digital technologies would render information about products and markets ubiquitous.
  the dematerialising idea at the onset of cyberspace: that it would 'free' markets from its material imperfections, and allow its fully furnished abstract elegance.
infraspace | urbit

They are all based on matter, and there is no matter here.
  john perry barlow. specifically dematerialises space
urbit | infraspace

For such data to be effectively public — rather than simply a free service to large institutional and commercial entities — we need a new generation of visualization tools that are easily operated by a concerned novice, and that provide access to their underlying logic so that advanced users can assess functions and experiment with alternatives
  perhaps- but open data would be a good start
infraspace | urbit

As cities age, the challenge is not always to rebuild them physically but to re-imagine how they might function and adapt.
  rlly nice

Cities are also software — they actually have many layers of software. They have an operating system — a hard set of rules and constraints that are imposed and enforced by governments. Operating systems are hard boundaries too — they are laws that forbid and allow. They define what you can and can’t do as much as the hardware does. Far from open to opportunities, the operating systems of cities are often defensive, risk averse and closed to possibility.
  really good for getting at why urbit is related to cites: cities-as-software
infraspace | urbit

Ben Fry’s Deconstructulator opens up the Nintendo Entertainment System to reveal its software and hardware operations.
gts | infraspace | compvis

Sound serves as a useful diagnostic tool; we can often hear infrastructural malfunctions — like clanging pipes or a stuttering computer hard drive — that aren’t visible on the surface.
  cf trinh and sounding the architecture of things

Exploring the senses of infrastructures can reveal not only how those systems indicate their functionality for us — via blinking lights, beeps, etc. — but also their own operational modes and logics.
key | infraspace

The Internet itself is more multisensory than the sounds and images it summons to our devices
  here in the process of experimenting with other ways to 'sense' the internet: not just through film, through screens, but through a shaping of the body

Infrastructure can easily flip between figure and ground
key | infraspace

sociologists Susan Leigh Star and Geoffrey Bowker remind us that infrastructures also extend to intellectual and institutional operations, including measurement standards, naming conventions, classification systems, technical protocols and bureaucratic form

Lisa Parks suggests that it is our duty as infrastructural “citizen/users” to be aware of the “systems that surround [us] and that [we] subsidize and use,” and she proposes that we “devise … ways of visualizing and developing literacy about infrastructures and the relations that take shape through and around them.”
  nice concise quote abt the importance of infrastructure's bearing on space/place

What’s more, as Mackenzie argues, wirelessness constitutes a distinctive way of being — an existence somewhere between the material and immaterial, the empirical and theoretical, the place-bound and the placeless, the local and the global.
  wirelessness as a type of 'freedom'

Branden Hookway, whose own book on the subject will be published next month, agrees that the interface does its work “not as a technology in itself but as the zone or threshold that must be worked through in order [for the user] to be able to relate to technology.” 6 In that working-through, the interface structures the user’s agency and identity and constructs him or her as a “subject,” which is different from a mere “user,” in that the subject’s identity shifts in response to contextual variations and is informed by historical, cultural and political forces.
  all code as interface: constructing using subjects via its terms
infraspace | oss

Digital spaces—created by the internet and the increasingly-networked systems\r and devices we use—form digital territories that, like physical spaces, have the\r propensity to become sites of extraction and exploitation, and thus the sites of\r digital-territorial coloniality
  architecture -> software
urbit | infraspace

An engagement view calls directly for more critical views of science. This view\r calls on us to examine scientific practice from the margins, to place the needs\r of marginalised populations at the centre of the design and research process,\r and to ask where knowledge comes from—who is included and left out, in\r whose interest is science applied, who is silenced, and what unacknowledged\r assumptions might be at play
  an 'engagement' view of decolonization accords with lefebvre's epistemology of the urban

The city to Lefebvre is not solely place and product of capitalist valuation, but also a\r solid opportunity to regenerate the social space by the active participation of the dwellers\r who live it and cross it. The city is thus the site of the possibility to take hold again of space\r and time based on the demands and needs of those who live it, particularly those who are\r most frail.
  as an intro quote to an essay abt mr robot, and the politics of software

The radical\r interrogative that Lefebvre reflects upon is: Who makes decisions about the planning of\r space? Who decides how men should live and dwell in? In other words, deciding\r “about the city” is deciding “about politics.”
  another great intro/segue to software as politics
urbit | infraspace

The urbanization of society is accompanied by the deterioration of urban life. . . . It is with\r these peripheral inhabitants, their segregation, their isolation, in my mind that I speak to\r on a book of “right to the city.”
  def: the right to the city

The productive capitalist processes that transform the work into serial product and\r mere merchandise move to the urban space of the city, and even the city becomes object\r of exchange and profi
  mr robot perhaps marks the association tra the city and software, the way in which software reads and writes the politics of spaces (urban,in particular)
infraspace | urbit

Consequently the city is a space–time centre that agglomerates in itself consistent portions\r of the urban, but does not coincide with it.
  the distinction tra the city and the urban

The essence of the city as “object” produced by human action is understood in\r the role of the mediator between such levels. The city, hence, undertakes a specific “objec-\r tivity”: it is predetermined (in the far order) but also liable to being re-codified on other\r basis (in fact the far order doesn’t completely limit the near order).
  reading as software as sociological material
urbit | infraspace | materialisms

To sum-\r marize: the sociologist’s task is one that takes hold of this theoretical archetype, merging—\r simultaneously in his studies—the general dimension with its parts, with the temporal\r span of the city’s evolution.
  and thus is the critical software scholar a 'sociologist' of code's materiality
urbit | infraspace

Most of all, the French author considers the city as a metaphor, or should I say, as\r almost a synecdoche of the concept of “society,” in fact it is defined as a projection of\r the society over the territory:\r
  cf the importance of the notion of 'territory'
infraspace | key

sociological epistemology of mar-\r ginality: it is the staying put and watching from the point of view of the threshold that will\r allow one to gain a more accurate look over the complexity of social situations that one is\r facing. It is the specific point of view of those who are victims of oppression and who are\r weaker, of those who live in the margins as if they were waste that allows the actual state of\r health of urban life in the city to become intellectually attainable. In other words, it is the\r life of the “people in the abyss” from the urban peripheries that, more than in any other\r circumstances, has a word to say about a sociological urban task.
  lefebvre's theory of urban marginality as epistemology

Lefebvre adopted urban marginality as elected\r perspective—for the sociologist—to unveil the true social reality, beyond and against the\r dream image promoted by the spectacular and hedonistic devices of the city shaped by\r Fordism.

Lefebvre’s reflection evolves from\r the margins, from the threshold that splits and shatters the urban space between the weal-\r thier and the weaker groups

Lefebvre’s reflection evolves from\r the margins, from the threshold that splits and shatters the urban space between the weal-\r thier and the weaker groups.1 The margin becomes the privileged viewing point because it\r is the point that unfolds the reality pertaining to the city’s narrative.

Lefebvre’s conclusion that the human body is the key to a revolt against modernity’s straitjacket.
infraspace | lefebvre

space is not a container that simply needs to be filled but itself an active designer of our social relations.
infraspace | lefebvre

after the alienation from “natural space”, “social space” was created
infraspace | lefebvre

suggested a triadic division of space into: 1) “perceived space“2, 2) “conceived space“3, and 3) “lived and endured space”, or “spaces of representation“4.
infraspace | lefebvre